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Friday, September 5, 2014

Exercise in Haiku, Senryu and Cinquain Poems for Your Students



Haiku Poems – Implicit Themes

The Haiku is a short poem based on simplicity that uses sensory language to capture natural images. The Haiku is created around an implicit theme. It is made up of seventeen syllables spread over a platform of three lines. The first line has five syllables, the second line has seven syllables, and the third line has five syllables. When creating the Haiku, poets draw inspiration from the elements of nature, a moment of beauty or poignant experience. These elements truly define the Haiku. The simplistic nature of the Haiku requires that no capital letters or topics be assigned to its content.

Japanese are credited for creating the Haiku previously called the Kokku. The name was changed by the Japanese poet, Masaoka Shiki. The English Haiku was developed from that of the Japanese. Here are some Haiku poems for you to read, enjoy, study the structure and get your students to write their own Haiku poems: 

1.         assertive dinning
            chicken in hot pepper Sauce
            asparagus and split-peas
           
            mixed vegetables
            on plates left, right and center
            swim in mushroom sauce

            vegetable stew
            no knives and forks cutlery
            just fine China ware

                                                                January 2011     Form – Triple Haiku

In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?

2.         don’t like it one bit
            starchy maggots in my face
            crooked grains of rice

                                                                January 2007     Form – single Haiku

In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?

 3.         now open your eyes
            see the beauty around you
            gift nature gives

            that scenic picture
            it’s nature’s watering pool
            for tourists and me

            that blue crystal sea
            is close to my cottage door
            and the ebbing tide

                                                                January 2003     Form –Triple Haiku

In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?

 4.      Oh Rose of Sharon
          your home is found everywhere
           bringing joy to all

                                                January 2003     Form – Single Haiku

In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?
  
5.         open your eyes now
            see the beauty around you
            the gift nature gives

            puzzle mind wanders
            star lights shine amid the green
            fragrant candles bloom

            behold the vista
            showcase of countless beauty
            sky and earth below

                                                January 2003     Form -Triple Haiku

In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?

6.         receiving arm cheers
            trunk-less trees stalk and then creep
            where harvest grains flow

                                                January 2007     Form - Single Haiku

In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?

7.         smiles spring from faces
            multifarious colors fall
            leaves a pretty mess

                                                 September 2006)     Form - Single Haiku

In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?

 8.         that scenic picture
            that’s nature’s watering pool
            for tourists and me

                                                 November 2001     Form - Single Haiku

In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?

 9.        so the Mayflower
            blooms not in Royal bouquet
            snub in Plymouth see

            pilgrims ditched the Brits
            in Plymouth Sound Mayflower
            roots in Cape Cod Bay

            tea party express
            reads US the Constitution
            holds sway Union Jack

                                                April 2011     Form - Triple Haiku

In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?

10.       sunset on the green
            pretty leaves fall on the eyes
            bush strokes paint designs

            the falling rainbow
            leaves blazing hue on the trees
            deciduously

            nature recycles
            to the ground falls Joseph’s coat
            magnificently

                                                November 2006     Form - Triple Haiku

In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?
  
11.       the earth still rumbles
            joy, hate and blood exploding
            greeted Baby Doc
                                                                                                                                           
            debris all around
            foreign ovens bake its dough
            to feed starving throng

            its mid-harvest there
            and its cherry picking time
            Doc whispers Papa Doc
           
            much green-backs on ground
            go weep there now Duvalier
            love and hate confound

            agenda not clear
            what should I do Papa Doc
            go replant my roots

            reconstruction, oui
            donations piling sky high
            papa still loves you

                                                January 2011     Form - Double-Triple Haiku

In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?
  
12.       the quest is over
            in peace the silent heart beats
            on for-get-me-not

                                                 May 2006     Form – Haiku

In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?
  
13.       they have reached their quest
            and now they must rest in peace
            cenotaph stands tall

                                                November 2004     Form - Single Haiku

In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?
  
14.       vesper mist rises
            with its cascading beauty
            dusk blankets the land

            chorus of insects
            sing their operatic songs
            the world’s lullaby

                                                 May 2006     Form - Double Haiku

In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?
  
15.       with a floral stance
            silently I bow my head
            for insects I prey

            the insectivore
            stilt-walks the entire land
            preys before each meal

            on grasses and flowers
            these spiny-forelegs must rest
            stalking and preying

                                                 January 2003     Form -Triple Haiku

In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?

Senryu Poems – Implicit Themes

The Senryu is named after the Japanese poet, Karai Senryu. This type of poem is similar to the Haiku in these important ways:

It is a short poem that uses sensory language to capture human conditions. These images are created around an implicit theme just like what the Haiku does. Also its structure is similar to the Haiku in that it is made up of seventeen syllables spread over a platform of three lines. The first line has five syllables, the second line has seven syllables, and the third line has five syllables. It requires that no capital letters or topics be assigned to its content.

The Senryu separates itself from the Haiku in this important way; the Haiku deals with the elements of nature whereas, the Senryu deals with human condition. Here are some Senryu poems shown below for you to read, enjoy, study the structure and get your students to write their own Haiku poems.

1.         dancing beaver takes
            two steps backwards and trembles
            standing for your vote

                                                                November 2006     Form – Senryu

In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?

 2.         my thoughts are riches
            the mint of my memory
            poverty dwells not

                                                February 2007     Form - Senryu

In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?

 3.         naked as a babe
            to fall and to rise again
            clad in robes of spring

                                                 July 2004   Form - Senryu

In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?

 4.         seabed of knowledge
            swims deep to harvest all sorts
            in the sands of time

                                                                 March 2006      Form – Senryu

In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?

5.         the tribe of Maori
            marooned for days on shoreline
            watching the seabed

                                                 July 2004 Form - Senryu

In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?

6.         people out gamin
            like grasshoppers on cane-blades
            in stridulant prance

            breeze in shack-shack trees
            on the Spring Garden highway
            bodies gyrating

            folks in Oistin town
            like the noisy honey bees
            while fish churn in waves

                                                                 July 2003  Form - Triple-senryu
                               
In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?

7.         the world is my muse
            fodder energizing train
            reservoir of thoughts
                       
                                                August 2006     Form - Senryu

In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?
  
8.         those darts cannot dent
            the breastplate of the faithful
            the rock of ages
           
                                                                 March 2006     Form - Senryu

In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?
  
9.         fiery tongues ablaze
            stroke hidden wild winds that blow
            grape vines on trellis

                                                                 August 2006     Form - Senryu

In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?
  
10.       give this thing a name
            eating the whole stake that’s who
            dog looking at you

                                                                February 2007     Form - Senryu

In your opinion, what idea you think the poet is projecting to the reader?
Base on your answer to the first question, what is the implicit theme in this poem?

 Cinquain – Explicit Themes

The Cinquain is derived from the old French word cinq meaning five and the Latin root word quin meaning five. The name of the female poet who is responsible for creating the Cinquain is Adelaide Crapsey. She based the designed of the Cinquain on the Japanese Haiku. The Cinquain poems thrive on a strict structure and intense physical imagery to communicate a mood or feeling where explicit thoughts are the hall-mark. Therefore readers of her Cinquain poems have only to combine the topic with the last line of the Cinquain as a complete sentence and there the explicit theme is revealed. No need to search for hidden thoughts as is the case with the Haiku and the Senryu poems. Each Crapsey Cinquain poem is non-rhyming and with a topic consisting of five lines made up of syllables that follow this pattern as shown below:

Line 1 ......  2 syllables            Line 3 ......  6 syllables            Line 5 ......  2 syllables
Line 2 ......  4 syllables            Line 4 ......  8 syllables

Two examples of Cinquain poems written by Adelaide Crapsey are shown in Table below.  Of course, modern Cinquain poems have undergone many modifications even though they retain the five-line threshold as shown in Table below.



Original Cinquain Poems


Examples


Structure


Cinquain


Structure


The Warning
 
Just now
Out of the strange
Still dusk ...as strange , as still
A white moth flew...Why am I grown
So cold?

(written by Adelaide Crapsey)

Topic:
The Warning

Explicit Theme:
So cold is the warning.



2 syllables
4 syllables
6 syllables
8 syllables
2 syllables







Niagara

How frail
Above the bulk
Of crashing water hangs,
Autumnal, evanescent, wan,
The moon.
(written by Adelaide Crapsey)

Title:
Niagara

Explicit Theme:
The moon above Niagara.




2 syllables
4 syllables
6 syllables
8 syllables
2 syllables








Poet Adelaide T.Crapsey was born on September 9, 1878 in Brooklyn, New York. She died on October 8, 1914. Adelaide was the daughter of Episcopal priest Algernon Sidney Crapsey. Her father was transferred from New York City to Rochester and Adelaide moved with him.

Ever since the appearance of the Crapsey brand of Cinquain took the poetic world by storm, modern poets have shown other arrangements to the Cinquain while maintaining the five line arrangement and the intense physical imagery to communicate a mood or feeling.  These changes are seen in the arrangement not by syllable and stresses but by a word (Noun) and a Cinquain whose purpose is to send a message (the Didactic Cinquain). The structure of these post Crapsey Cinquain poems are portrayed in Table below. 


Modified Cinquain


Didactic Cinquain


Structure

Topic

Line 1
Line 2
Line 3
Line 4
Line 5


Police Wives

Spouse
Resourceful charitable
Chat  work shop
Caring creative delightful sympathetic
Partner                                  




One Word (subject)
Two adjectives describing the subject
Three verbs  related to the subject
Four words describing feelings related to subject
Single word synonym or other reference for the subject


Non-Didactic Cinquain
(Version One)


Topic

Line 1
Line 2
Line 3
Line 4
Line 5

Domesticated Animals

Dog
Cute white
Barking eating sleeping
Barked at monkeys climbing mango tree.
Hound



A Noun
Two adjectives describing the noun
Three gerunds  related to the noun
A sentence that relates to the noun *
Another word for the noun


Non-Didactic Cinquain
(Version Two)


Topic

Line 1
Line 2
Line 3
Line 4
Line 5


Domesticated Animals

Dog
Cute white
Barking eating sleeping
At monkeys
Hound



A Noun
Two adjectives describing the noun
Three gerunds  related to the noun
A phase that relates to the noun *
Another word for the noun


The following Cinquain poems include the style put forward by Adelaide Crapsey as well as the modified Cinquain styles: 

The Cloudburst

Deluge
Sudden heavy
Raining flooding rescuing
Downpour brought havoc on survivors
Flood
                        (August 2014)
                                               

This Cinquain is arranged by....................................................................................
What is the Title of this poem? ..............................................................................................
What is the Explicit Theme in this poem? .........................................................................................
  
Kadooment

People
Masquerading
In colourful costumes
Peacocks dance to calypso songs
Merry
                                                (July 2003)


This Cinquain is arranged by....................................................................................
What is the Title of this poem? ..............................................................................................
What is the Explicit Theme in this poem? .........................................................................................

 Poets at Work

Metre
Verses and lines
On horizontal plane
Eyes on imagery lips on beats
Rhythm
                                                (January 2003)


This Cinquain is arranged by....................................................................................
What is the Title of this poem? ..............................................................................................
What is the Explicit Theme in this poem? .........................................................................................

 Beauty in Nature

Red rose
Across hybrid globe
Nursery gardens vase
Botany ornamental plants
Flowers
                                    (February 2006/Ohio, USA)


This Cinquain is arranged by....................................................................................
What is the Title of this poem? ..............................................................................................
What is the Explicit Theme in this poem? .........................................................................................

 Religion

Passion
Crucifixion
Son of the living God
Jesus Christ’gift of atonement
Redeem
                                                (August 20014)
                                                               

This Cinquain is arranged by....................................................................................
What is the Title of this poem? ..............................................................................................
What is the Explicit Theme in this poem? .........................................................................................

Police Wives

Spouse
Resourceful charitable
Chat work shop
Caring, creative, delightful, sympathetic
Partner                                
                                                (April 1, 2009)
                                                               

This Cinquain is arranged by....................................................................................
What is the Title of this poem? ..............................................................................................
What is the Explicit Theme in this poem? .........................................................................................

Orbit of Earth around the Sun

Summer
Warmest happiness
Reap sunbathe hike
Energetic optimistic roses air-condition
Heat
                                                (August 2014)

 This Cinquain is arranged by....................................................................................
What is the Title of this poem? ..............................................................................................
What is the Explicit Theme in this poem? .........................................................................................

 Matrimony

Nuptials
Fabulous beautiful
Kissing announcing attending
Shower with love
Marriage
                                                (August 2014)


This Cinquain is arranged by....................................................................................
What is the Title of this poem? ..............................................................................................
What is the Explicit Theme in this poem? .........................................................................................

The Birth of Jesus Christ

Christmas
comes once a year
all Christians everywhere
celebrate Nativity at
Christmas
such a Christian
festival with good cheer
brings the dawn of a New Year at
Christmas
and good deeds flow
from humanity’s soul
we worship baby Jesus at
Christmas
gorgeous colors
and lots of jingle bells
singing carols old and new at
Christmas
wishing this cheer
sticks like glue to all hearts
and stays in place all the year for
Christmas
to nurture folks
that are sick and lonely
keep the love of Jesus beyond
Christmas
and Christmas Eve
when busy crowds subside
the malls become deserted at
Christmas
Turkeys' necks cut
so are chickens and ducks
wishing the fowl play would stop at
Christmas
those birds must cluck
under the mistletoe
with vocal chords to say Merry
Christmas
is in the air
with lots of laughter too
presents all wrapped with pretty bows at
Christmas
now sit beneath
the lighted Christmas tree
with small ornaments that dance at
Christmas
jolly Santa
sitting in crowded malls
with kids laughing Oh! Ho! Merry
Christmas
trees shine brightly
to help us find our way
and in the air the church bells ring
Christmas
season is here
along with midnight mass
we hear voices in choirs at
Christmas
sweet soprano
blends the bass and tenor
to families and neighbors at
Christmas
rich and poor mix
in unison they sing
streaming carols and music at
Christmas
                                                                                                                                                       (April 2010)


This Cinquain Chain is arranged by....................................................................................
What is the Title of this poem? ..............................................................................................
What is the Explicit Theme in this poem? .........................................................................................

 Notes 

Implicit themes are used in Haiku and Senryu and for good reasons. Here are some suggestions for students to following when searching for the poem’s implicit theme. Students must have an understanding of what the words “implicit” and “theme” mean. Let students read this Haiku as shown below and from it extract its implicit theme:


assertive dinning
chicken in hot pepper sauce
asparagus and split-peas

 mixed vegetables
 on plates left, right and center
swim in mushroom sauce

vegetable stew
no knives and forks cutlery
just fine china ware 
                               February 2007   Form – Triple Haiku
In responding to the question, students should: 
Formulate a definition for implicit theme.
Provide reasons as to why poets would use implicit themes in some of their poems. 
Identify specific questions that must be addressed in order to find out what the poet is asking the reader to think about in poem. 
State how the reader extracts from the poem its idea and implicit theme.
Discuss the proper way to write an implicit theme extracted from a poem.
During group’s presentation, expect students’ responses to zero on aspects which bring to bear that:-
The Haiku and Senryu poem rely on implicit themes couched in words spoken with brevity and simplicity to convey the message. Poets use implicit themes to draw readers into their thoughts. A implicit theme is a poet‘s thought understood though not clearly or directly expressed in the poem. This requires reading the poem with a critical eye to find answers to the first question; “What idea does the poet what the reader to think about in the poem? Bearing in mind that idea is synonymous with topic, subject, thought or concept. The poem is read again and an answer is found – “The poet wants readers to think about “Tolerance” the idea. The next question is asked, “What does the poet want the reader to consider in the idea of “Tolerance”? The poet wants the reader to consider that “Tolerance is the acceptance of the differing views of others". The implicit theme is taken from the perceived notion of what the poet wants readers to consider; and in this scenario the poet wants readers to understand that “Tolerance is about acceptance” and it is from this statement that the implicit theme is extracted and is always shown as a complete sentence and with at least one subject, so in this case the implicit theme is any one of these - “Tolerance accepts diversity”, “Tolerance accepts social inclusiveness” or “Tolerance accepts discrepancy”.
assertive dinning
chicken in hot pepper sauce
asparagus and split-peas

 mixed vegetables
 on plates left, right and center
swim in mushroom sauce

vegetable stew
no knives and forks cutlery
just fine china ware 
                               February 2007   Form – Triple Haiku

Analysis of this Haiku revealed the following:

The Idea the poet wants readers to consider is – Tolerance
What’s the poet wants readers is that – Tolerance is the acceptance of the differing views of others.
Implicit Theme - Tolerance accepts diversity

Any answer the group gives is acceptable; so long it is substantiated by the interpretation of the poem’s imagery. 
The explicit theme is the backbone of Cinquain poems, whereas the implicit theme is the hallmark of both the Haiku and Senryu poems. During classroom discussion with your students they get to know that poetry is crafted in many forms or styles.  They are lead to understand the meaning and purpose for the diversity.  This understanding allows them to select the form or style for the particular purpose in mind. They will realize that Language is the spoken or written words; Poetry is part of English Literature and that Literature in the form of poetry is emotional in content whereas, English Language is not. As a teacher you will find the ease which comes from preparing lessons that integrate concepts in English Language with concepts in Poetry. Students will get to see how Poetry turns Language Arts concepts in a delightful tail-spin as seem in examples shown in Table below. Students will get to appreciate the beauty of communication effectively in the English Language as well as in Poetry.


Where They Converge – Where they Depart


Poetry Syllabus
(Excerpt)


English Language Syllabus
(Excerpt)


Haiku
Senryu




Cinquain




Use of syllables
Punctuaton not used
Capital letters not used
Implicit themes used
Line formatting specified

Use  of syllables
Punctuaton not used
Capital letters not used
Use Title or Topic
Explicit Theme used
Line formatting specified
Verbs, complete sentence, Synonym, adjectives, phrase, nouns

Word Choice, Grammar, Punctuation, Paragraphing
Adjustment of grammatical form appropriate to audience, context, sentence functions, sentence
 types (simple or compound) punctuation, paragraphing
Understand information presented directly in language to be taken literally
Select relevant information from titles, introductions, topic  sentences, illustrations
Interpreting information presented indirectly
Identifying stated or implied time sequence
Drawing valid conclusions and inferences from information presented
Recognise cause-effect relationships
Identify structure seen through sequence of topics of individual paragraphs
Recognize Denotative meaning and Connotative meaning
Identify passages in Expository passages and Literary passages and their purpose

.
In exposing students to the study of poetry for the first time, teachers tend to introduce Grade 6 (11-12 years) students to the Haiku, Senryu and the Cinquain; in so many ways they are very good places to start; for they reinforce Language Arts skills as appropriate.
It is always a good thing to let students do their own research on a topic with teacher guidance. In their research on Cinquain you expect students to address the following matters:
The name of the person who invented the Cinquain and students should construct a profile on this poet so identified.
Discuss the Cinquain structure put forward by its inventor
Identify two other Cinquain styles that emerged out of the original Cinquain and discuss the structure of these two styles.
Get students to apply basic Math in finding the number of syllables in a word. Supply your students with Table shown below as a handout. 


Apply Basic Mathematics
to
Finding the Number of Syllables in a Word


1
   
2     


3

Count the vowels in the word

Subtract any silent vowels, (like the silent “e” at the end of a word or the second vowel when two vowels are together in a syllable)

Subtract one vowel from every diphthong, (diphthongs only count as one vowel sound.) The number of vowels sounds left is the same as the number of syllables. The number of syllables that you hear when you pronounce a word is the same as the number of vowels sounds heard. For example:

The word "came" has 2 vowels, but the "e" is silent, leaving one vowel sound and one syllable.

The word "outside" has 4 vowels, but the "e" is silent and the "ou" is a diphthong which counts as only one sound, so this word has only two vowels  sounds and therefore, two syllables.



Suggested Assignments for Students

Students read all the poems in this post and fill in the blank lines at the bottom of each poem for teacher assessment.
Students write their own Haiku, Senryu and Cinquain poems and share with their colleagues who critic whether the poems meet guidelines for their structure.

Students start preparing their own portfolio of poems with comments on them for teacher assessment.  
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Haiti Under Rubble from 7.0 Earthquake

Natural disasters whenever and wherever they occur impact on all of our lives. The Good Book says we are our brothers and sisters keepers lead by the Holy Spirit. Hence, we must do our part when disaster shows its ugly face. Any assistance, great or small, given from generous and loving hearts has equal weight. I'm passing on this information I received that Barbadians can go to First Caribbean Bank to donate to the Disaster Relief Fund for Haiti. The banking information is shown below:

First Caribbean Bank Account--2645374-- Cheques can be written to: HELP #2645374

For more information click on this link

My thoughts and prayers are with the people of Haiti.

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